The story of the Nigeria oil pipeline breaks: a disaster risk reduction approach

The prevalence of oil pipeline vandalism in Nigeria has recently emerged as one of the veritable problems to human life and security.  Beyond the economic loss of  oil, pipeline breaks that runs into billions of dollars, and the massive land degradation  caused by oil spills, thousands of lives have been lost in the past decade due to oil pipeline explosions.  These breaks and their effects have fast become an alarming disaster to the communities living around the right of way of oil pipelines and indeed to the nation at large. This documentary  explores the causes of oil pipeline vandalism and its effect  on the Nigerian state and describes briefly how the Nigerian Government introduced a structural intervention by  implementing a disaster risk reduction approach to reducing the menace of oil pipeline explosions and related emergencies.

See video: The story of the Nigeria Oil Pipeline breaks: A Disaster Risk Reduction approach.

HFA success story – Lebanon (Arabic)

 

 

عنوان الممارسة الجيدة / دراسةالحالة

ينبغي أن تندرج الممارسة / الحالة ضمن واحدة من الخمس اعمال ذات الأولوية لأطار عمل هيوغو . الإطار متاح على الموقع الأتى: http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/8720

-تعزيز الاستعداد للكوارث بغية التصدي لها بفعالية على جميع المستوايات

-الاستفادة من المعرفة والابتكارات والتعليم لبناء ثقافة للسلامة والقدرة على مواجهة الكوارث على جميع المستوايات

-الحد من عوامل المخاطر الاساسية

فى اى من اولويات العمل تسهم الممارسة / الحالة ؟

تقديم ملخص من 3- 5 اسطر عن الممارسة الجيدة / دراسة الحالة:

عند سماع دوي الانفجار نهار الجمعة في 23 آب 2013 توجهت عناصر الاطفاء والدفاع المدني الى مسجد التقوى لاطفاء النيران واسعاف المحتاجين وذلك بعد عشر ثوان من سماع الصوت. وقد كان موقع الانفجار يعج بالمصلين الفارين من الحريق وهول الانفجار ومن رؤية المصابين والجرحى.

و بعد دقيقة واحدة حضر الجيش للمساعدة في اسعاف المصابين بمؤازرة الصليب الاحمر واسعاف الجمعية الطبية وعمال من لافاجيت مع سيترات مياه. كما و حضر عمال من بلدية طرابلس وبلدية الميناء بمؤازرة جرافة كبيرة وبوب كات وسيترنات ماء للمساعدة.

وكان بالقرب من موقع الانفجار مسجد التقوى يوجد محل لبيع ادوات الصيد الذي يحتوي على مادة البارود وخرطوش للصيد وقد احترق هذا المحل وكان هنالك صعوبة في اطفائه كما واشتعلت صيدلية (تحتوي على مواد كيميائية قابلة للاشتعال) بجانب الموقع.

بعد مرور خمس دقائق على الانفجار الاول سمع دوي لانفجار ثاني تبين انه في جامع السلام وعلى الفور توجهت عناصر اخرى من الدفاع المدني وسرية الاطفاء و الصليب الاحمر والجيش و الدرك والامن العام والمعلومات ومخابرات الجيش والجمعية الطبية الاسلامية وعمال من بلدية طرابلس وعمال من لافاجيت مع سيترات مياه الى موقع الانفجار. كما وحضر الى موقع الانفجار الثاني عمال من جهاز المكافحة في اتحاد بلديات الفيحاء.

وحسب وسائل الاعلام بلغ عدد الجرحى 500 جريح وعدد القتلى 45 في الانفجارين.

الملخص

أذكر باختصار:

ماذا كانت المشكلة

حصل الانفجارين نهار الجمعة في 23 آب 2013 اثناء تأدية صلاة الظهر من يوم الجمعة ووقع الانفجار الاول بعيد الواحدة والنصف بعد الظهر قرب مسجد التقوى في وسط طرابلس خلال صلاة الجمعة. وبعد دقائق، دوى انفجار ثان قرب مسجد السلام في منطقة الميناء على بعد اكثر من كيلمترين من الموقع الاول.

السياق

من اين تاتى دراسة الحالة / الممارسة ؟ اسم المكان ، البلد؟

البلد لبنان

المدينة طرابلس

الموقع: مسجد التقوى في التبانة ومسجد السلام في الميناء

الموقع

ماذا تم للتعامل مع المشكلة؟ تم التعاون بين كل الجهات المعنية

من كان مشترك و ما الدور الذى لعبه ؟

سرية الاطفاء: مكافحة النيران التي اندلعت

الصليب الاحمر والجمعية الطبية الاسلامية: نقل الجرحى واسعاف المحتاجين ونقل الشهداء الى المستشفى

بلدية طرابلس والميناء: المساعدة باعطاء المياه لسرية الاطفاء والدفاع المدنيوالمساعدة ايضا في اخماد الحريق

الجهاز المكافحة في الاتحاد بلديات الفيحاء: اعطاء المياه لسرية الاطفاء

الجيش: نقل الجرحى ومنع الناس من الاقتراب

الدرك والمخابرات الجيش والمعلومات: الحفاظ على الامن ومنع الناس من الاقتراب.

ماذا كانت التحديات الرئيسية و كيف تم التغلب عليها؟

1-نقص المعدات في سرية الاطفاء

2-اندفاع الناس للتدخل في المساعدة قد اثر في عملية التدخل للاسعاف

3-تواجد حفرة عميقة امام جامع التقوى

4-الصليب الاحمر عانى من تدخل الناس في عملية نقل الجرحى

5-الجيش اللبناني عانى من تدخل الناس في عملية الانقاذ ووجود فوضى سببها تواجد كثيف للناس

6-المشاكل التي واجهتها عناصر سرية الاطفاء والدفاع المدني والصليب الاحمر هي تواجد الكثيف للناس التي اندفعت سعيا لمساعدة الجرحى ووجود حفرة كبيرة سببها الانفجار عمق مترين مغمورة بالمياه التي ادت الى وقوع سيارة للدفاع المدني فيها.

7- كان بالقرب من موقع الانفجار مسجد التقوى يوجد محل لبيع ادوات الصيد الذي يحتوي على مادة البارود وخرطوش للصيد وقد احترق هذا المحل وكان هنالك صعوبة في اطفائه كما واشتعلت صيدلية (تحتوي على مواد كيميائية قابلة للاشتعال) بجانب الموقع. 

ما هى الدروس المستفادة؟

1-تفعيل دور مركز ادارة الأزمات

2-ضرورة تحسين المعدات في سرية الاطفاء

3-ضرورة التنسيق بين الجهات المسعفة والمستشفيات لمعرفة اين يوجد اماكن شاغرة في المستشفيات

4-ضرورة التنسيق لفتح الطرقات وجعل الطرق سالكة لنقل المسعوفين

5-ضرورة استحداث مستشفى ميداني في مواقع مختلفة

ماذا كان يمكن القيام به بشكل مختلف، ولماذا؟

كيف تم التعامل مع المشكلة؟

ماذا كانت نتيجة هذا النهج / التدخل؟

طرابلس شانها شان العديد من المدن، تحدق بها سلسلة من المخاطر الطبيعية و غير الطبيعية، و يتمحور الخطر الاول في المنطقة حول امكانية حصول كوارث طبيعية، و من ابرزها الزلازل و التسونامي بالاضافة الى المخاطر الاخرى مثل الفياضان و حرائق الغابات و انزلاقات التربة و العواصف الثلجية او انفجرات.

تم افتتاح اول غرفة عمليات لادارة الكوارث و الازمات في سراي طرابلس ومن الجدير بالذكر ان محافظة الشمال في لبنان هي المحافظة الاولى التي ينطلق منها هذا المشروع، وله اهمية كبرى من ناحية التنسيق بين مختلف الادارات العامة و الاجهزة العسكرية و المدنية عند حدوث اي كارثة و سبل معالجتها باقل الاضرار الممكنة و التخفيف من حدة اثارها من خلال إدارة جيدة وحكيمة للموارد المتاحة، ومن خلال مشاركة جميع المعنيين مشاركة فاعلة ودون حدوث تضارب فيما بينها أو خلل في الحضور على الارض مما يعيق عمل الاجهزة المعنية ويؤدي الى تفاقم الاضرار الناجمة عن أية أزمة أو كارثة. 

النتائج

ماذا كانت العناصر الرئيسية للنجاح؟ التعاون والتنسيق بين الجهات المعنية

هل تم قياس النجاح / التأثير؟ كلا

اذا كان الأمر كذلك ، ما هى المؤشرات التى استخدمت فى القياس؟

أذا لم يتم القياس ،   فلماذا لم يتم؟

قياس النجاح

كيف اسهمت النتأئج فى تقدم أطار عمل هيوغو فى هذة الدولة ؟

هل لعب أطار عمل هيوغو او حملة تمكين المدن من المجابهة اى دور فى جعل هذه المباردة ممكنة؟

أذا كان الجواب نعم فكيف و اذا لآ فماذا يجب القيام به لتمكين مثل هذه المبادرات؟

العلاقة بأطارعمل هيوغو 1

هل يمكن تكرار هذة المبادرة؟ أم أنه بالفعل تم تكرارها؟ إذا كان الأمر كذلك، أين.

قدم شرح موجز عن : كيف و اذا كانت لا توجد احتمالية للتكرار

أحتمالية التكرار

توفير معلومات الأتصال بالشخص / الأشخاص الريئسين فى هذا المثال من الممارسة و كذلك معلومات الأتصال بك

رئيس اتحاد بلديات الفيحاء/رئيس بلدية طرابلس الدكتور نادر الغزال 009613228212tel:

مدير اتحاد بلديات الفيحاء المهندسة ديمة حمصي

009613424330 tel:

قائد سرية الاطفاء في اتحاد بلديات الفيحاء عبد الحميد العويك 0096170418100 tel:

المساهمة

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

إحتفالاً بنجاح إطار عمل هيوغو وتحضيراً للمؤتمر العالمى الثالث للحد من مخاطر الكوارث يدعو مكتب الأمم المتحدة للحد من مخاطر الكوارث الى تقديم الممارسات الجيدة التي تبرز النجاح في تنفيذ إطار عمل هيوغو، وتكون بمثابة دليل لدعم التوصيات لإطار ما بعد عام 2015 للحد من مخاطر الكوارث.

 

يمكن أن تشمل دراسات الحالة أمثلة من العمل الناجح على مستوى المجتمع، والمدينة، والمستوى الوطني أو الإقليمي أو العالمي، فضلا عن أمثلة من مختلف المجموعات المعنية، مثل الحكومة الإقليمية والوطنية، أو المحلية؛ والمنظمات الغير حكومية؛ الهيئات الأكاديمية، والقطاع الخاص؛ والمنظمات الحكومية الدولية ومنظمات الأمم المتحدة، والمجتمع المدنى.

 

يمكن أرسال قصص النجاح باللغة الأنجليزية ، الفرنسية، الأسبانية أو العربية على البريد الألكترونى:

wcdrr2015-celebrate@un.org

 

فى موعد اقصاه 30 نوفمبر 2014 باستخدام هذا النموذج ” تحميل النموذج”

سيتم القاء الضوء على الممارسات الجيدة و درسة الحالة أثناء و قبل الموتمرالعالمى للحد من مخاطر الكوارث

 

 

 


 

 

نموذج توثيق أمثلة الممارسات الجيدة

 

 

الغرض من الدعوة هو جمع أمثلة للممارسات الجيدة على التي من شأنها تسليط الضوء على نجاح إطار عمل هيوغو بالأضافة لكونها الدليل الذى يدعم التوصيات الخاصة بأطار عمل ما بعد عام 2015.

 

 

يمثل النموذج أدناه دليل لكيفية تقديم درسات الحالة / الممارسات الجيدة:

 

عنوان الممارسة الجيدة / دراسةالحالة

ينبغي أن تندرج الممارسة / الحالة ضمن واحدة من الخمس اعمال ذات الأولوية لأطار عمل هيوغو . الإطار متاح على الموقع الأتى: http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/8720

 

-تعزيز الاستعداد للكوارث بغية التصدي لها بفعالية على جميع المستوايات

 

-الاستفادة من المعرفة والابتكارات والتعليم لبناء ثقافة للسلامة والقدرة على مواجهة الكوارث على جميع المستوايات

 

-الحد من عوامل المخاطر الاساسية

فى اى من اولويات العمل تسهم الممارسة / الحالة ؟

تقديم ملخص من 3- 5 اسطر عن الممارسة الجيدة / دراسة الحالة:

 

عند سماع دوي الانفجار نهار الجمعة في 23 آب 2013 توجهت عناصر الاطفاء والدفاع المدني الى مسجد التقوى لاطفاء النيران واسعاف المحتاجين وذلك بعد عشر ثوان من سماع الصوت. وقد كان موقع الانفجار يعج بالمصلين الفارين من الحريق وهول الانفجار ومن رؤية المصابين والجرحى.

و بعد دقيقة واحدة حضر الجيش للمساعدة في اسعاف المصابين بمؤازرة الصليب الاحمر واسعاف الجمعية الطبية وعمال من لافاجيت مع سيترات مياه. كما و حضر عمال من بلدية طرابلس وبلدية الميناء بمؤازرة جرافة كبيرة وبوب كات وسيترنات ماء للمساعدة.

 

وكان بالقرب من موقع الانفجار مسجد التقوى يوجد محل لبيع ادوات الصيد الذي يحتوي على مادة البارود وخرطوش للصيد وقد احترق هذا المحل وكان هنالك صعوبة في اطفائه كما واشتعلت صيدلية (تحتوي على مواد كيميائية قابلة للاشتعال) بجانب الموقع.

 

بعد مرور خمس دقائق على الانفجار الاول سمع دوي لانفجار ثاني تبين انه في جامع السلام وعلى الفور توجهت عناصر اخرى من الدفاع المدني وسرية الاطفاء و الصليب الاحمر والجيش و الدرك والامن العام والمعلومات ومخابرات الجيش والجمعية الطبية الاسلامية وعمال من بلدية طرابلس وعمال من لافاجيت مع سيترات مياه الى موقع الانفجار. كما وحضر الى موقع الانفجار الثاني عمال من جهاز المكافحة في اتحاد بلديات الفيحاء.

 

وحسب وسائل الاعلام بلغ عدد الجرحى 500 جريح وعدد القتلى 45 في الانفجارين.

 

 

الملخص

أذكر باختصار:

ماذا كانت المشكلة

حصل الانفجارين نهار الجمعة في 23 آب 2013 اثناء تأدية صلاة الظهر من يوم الجمعة ووقع الانفجار الاول بعيد الواحدة والنصف بعد الظهر قرب مسجد التقوى في وسط طرابلس خلال صلاة الجمعة. وبعد دقائق، دوى انفجار ثان قرب مسجد السلام في منطقة الميناء على بعد اكثر من كيلمترين من الموقع الاول.

 

السياق

من اين تاتى دراسة الحالة / الممارسة ؟ اسم المكان ، البلد؟

البلد لبنان

المدينة طرابلس

الموقع: مسجد التقوى في التبانة ومسجد السلام في الميناء

الموقع

ماذا تم للتعامل مع المشكلة؟ تم التعاون بين كل الجهات المعنية

من كان مشترك و ما الدور الذى لعبه ؟

سرية الاطفاء: مكافحة النيران التي اندلعت

الصليب الاحمر والجمعية الطبية الاسلامية: نقل الجرحى واسعاف المحتاجين ونقل الشهداء الى المستشفى

بلدية طرابلس والميناء: المساعدة باعطاء المياه لسرية الاطفاء والدفاع المدنيوالمساعدة ايضا في اخماد الحريق

الجهاز المكافحة في الاتحاد بلديات الفيحاء: اعطاء المياه لسرية الاطفاء

الجيش: نقل الجرحى ومنع الناس من الاقتراب

الدرك والمخابرات الجيش والمعلومات: الحفاظ على الامن ومنع الناس من الاقتراب.

 

ماذا كانت التحديات الرئيسية و كيف تم التغلب عليها؟

1-نقص المعدات في سرية الاطفاء

2-اندفاع الناس للتدخل في المساعدة قد اثر في عملية التدخل للاسعاف

3-تواجد حفرة عميقة امام جامع التقوى

4-الصليب الاحمر عانى من تدخل الناس في عملية نقل الجرحى

5-الجيش اللبناني عانى من تدخل الناس في عملية الانقاذ ووجود فوضى سببها تواجد كثيف للناس

6-المشاكل التي واجهتها عناصر سرية الاطفاء والدفاع المدني والصليب الاحمر هي تواجد الكثيف للناس التي اندفعت سعيا لمساعدة الجرحى ووجود حفرة كبيرة سببها الانفجار عمق مترين مغمورة بالمياه التي ادت الى وقوع سيارة للدفاع المدني فيها.

7- كان بالقرب من موقع الانفجار مسجد التقوى يوجد محل لبيع ادوات الصيد الذي يحتوي على مادة البارود وخرطوش للصيد وقد احترق هذا المحل وكان هنالك صعوبة في اطفائه كما واشتعلت صيدلية (تحتوي على مواد كيميائية قابلة للاشتعال) بجانب الموقع.

 

 

ما هى الدروس المستفادة؟

1-تفعيل دور مركز ادارة الأزمات

2-ضرورة تحسين المعدات في سرية الاطفاء

3-ضرورة التنسيق بين الجهات المسعفة والمستشفيات لمعرفة اين يوجد اماكن شاغرة في المستشفيات

4-ضرورة التنسيق لفتح الطرقات وجعل الطرق سالكة لنقل المسعوفين

5-ضرورة استحداث مستشفى ميداني في مواقع مختلفة

ماذا كان يمكن القيام به بشكل مختلف، ولماذا؟

 

كيف تم التعامل مع المشكلة؟

ماذا كانت نتيجة هذا النهج / التدخل؟

طرابلس شانها شان العديد من المدن، تحدق بها سلسلة من المخاطر الطبيعية و غير الطبيعية، و يتمحور الخطر الاول في المنطقة حول امكانية حصول كوارث طبيعية، و من ابرزها الزلازل و التسونامي بالاضافة الى المخاطر الاخرى مثل الفياضان و حرائق الغابات و انزلاقات التربة و العواصف الثلجية او انفجرات.

تم افتتاح اول غرفة عمليات لادارة الكوارث و الازمات في سراي طرابلس ومن الجدير بالذكر ان محافظة الشمال في لبنان هي المحافظة الاولى التي ينطلق منها هذا المشروع، وله اهمية كبرى من ناحية التنسيق بين مختلف الادارات العامة و الاجهزة العسكرية و المدنية عند حدوث اي كارثة و سبل معالجتها باقل الاضرار الممكنة و التخفيف من حدة اثارها من خلال إدارة جيدة وحكيمة للموارد المتاحة، ومن خلال مشاركة جميع المعنيين مشاركة فاعلة ودون حدوث تضارب فيما بينها أو خلل في الحضور على الارض مما يعيق عمل الاجهزة المعنية ويؤدي الى تفاقم الاضرار الناجمة عن أية أزمة أو كارثة.

 

النتائج

ماذا كانت العناصر الرئيسية للنجاح؟ التعاون والتنسيق بين الجهات المعنية

 

هل تم قياس النجاح / التأثير؟ كلا

 

اذا كان الأمر كذلك ، ما هى المؤشرات التى استخدمت فى القياس؟

أذا لم يتم القياس ،   فلماذا لم يتم؟

قياس النجاح

كيف اسهمت النتأئج فى تقدم أطار عمل هيوغو فى هذة الدولة ؟

هل لعب أطار عمل هيوغو او حملة تمكين المدن من المجابهة اى دور فى جعل هذه المباردة ممكنة؟

أذا كان الجواب نعم فكيف و اذا لآ فماذا يجب القيام به لتمكين مثل هذه المبادرات؟

العلاقة بأطارعمل هيوغو 1

هل يمكن تكرار هذة المبادرة؟ أم أنه بالفعل تم تكرارها؟ إذا كان الأمر كذلك، أين.

قدم شرح موجز عن : كيف و اذا كانت لا توجد احتمالية للتكرار

أحتمالية التكرار

توفير معلومات الأتصال بالشخص / الأشخاص الريئسين فى هذا المثال من الممارسة و كذلك معلومات الأتصال بك

رئيس اتحاد بلديات الفيحاء/رئيس بلدية طرابلس الدكتور نادر الغزال 009613228212tel:

مدير اتحاد بلديات الفيحاء المهندسة ديمة حمصي

009613424330 tel:

قائد سرية الاطفاء في اتحاد بلديات الفيحاء عبد الحميد العويك 0096170418100 tel:

المساهمة

 

 

 

أرشادات:

 

أ ) اللغة

يمكن تقديم دراسات الحالة باللغة الإنجليزية والفرنسية والإسبانية والعربية.

 

ب ) التقديم

ينبغي أن ترسل دراسات الحالة الى البريد الألكترونى :” wcdrr2015-celebrate@un.org“. و سوف يعاود مكتب الأمم المتحدة للحد من مخاطر الكوارث الأتصال بالمساهمين لطلب المزيد من المعلومات إذا لزم الأمر.

 

ج ) أستخدام دراسات الحالة

سوف تكون دراسات الحالة التى تم اختيارها متاحة على شبكة الإنترنت على الموقع الخاص بأطار عمل هيوغو 2 وسيتم تضمينها في المنشورات ذات الصلة الخاصة بمكتب الأمم المتحدة للحد من مخاطر الكوارث.

 

لمزيد من المعلومات يرجى الأتصال على العنوان التالى:

wcdrr2015-celebrate@un.org

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How a small Samar town survived deadly storm surges

A coastal town in Samar province successfully weathers Typhoon Ruby by capitalizing on organized response as well as on timely, specific and localized early warning information. (HFA Priority 2 and 5)

Read more: How a small Samar town survived deadly storm surges

See videos: 

Families In Bangladesh Learn To Cope With Storms And Cyclones

Few places are more exposed to Mother Nature than the small settlements on the low lying coastal plains of southern Bangladesh. To help communities cope with the next storm or cyclone, WFP is working with the government to support projects that raise homes above the flood level and dig canals and ponds for farming.

Read more: 

Families In Bangladesh Learn To Cope With Storms And Cyclones By Cornelia Pätz — 4 April 2013

An early warning gave time to prepare for the super typhoon

Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) with support from USAID conducted Hospital Preparedness for Emergencies training in two district hospitals in Iloilo, Philippines to build the capacity of the hospitals in preparing for natural hazards.

Case Study

An early warning gave time to prepare for the super typhoon.

HFA Priority

HFA Priority 5: Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels

Context

As the Philippines is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, the rural hospitals are at high risk to the impacts of natural hazards.

Location

Iloilo, Philippines

How Was the Problem Addressed?

ADPC conducted Hospital Preparedness for Emergencies (HOPE) training for the hospitals under the Program for Enhancement of Emergency Response (PEER), which helped the hospitals to mitigate the impact of future disasters, e.g., typhoon Haiyan as illustrated in the case study.

Results

During typhoon Haiyan, the hospitals were able to ensure their patients’ safety.  

Measuring Success

The Sara District Hospital managed to keep all patients safe during the typhoon.

Relevance to HFA

The program supported HFA’s objectives by better preparing hazard-prone communities for disasters.

Potential for Replication

The PEER program has been implemented in nine countries in South and Southeast Asia.

Contribution

Asian Disaster Preparedness Center, Leila Puutio, leila@adpc.net

Emergency Management Exercise (EMEx): a case of urban risk reduction initiatives in cities of Assam

Emergency Management Exercise (EMEx) is a capacity building weeklong exercise designed to test the response mechanism that is in place in a disaster-prone city/town. The exercise provides an environment for the participants to develop new skills for emergency management and to work together to develop a multi-disciplinary, coordinated response to local disasters and emergencies. It becomes an important tool for evaluating and assessing the capabilities of emergency responders, to test the current plans and identify gaps in existing capacity and systems.

Case Study

Emergency Management Exercise (EMEx): a case of urban risk reduction initiatives in cities of Assam

HFA Priority

Priority 5: Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all level

Context

The occurrence of a disaster in an urban setting is of a different character and magnitude such an occurrence in a rural environment. The scale and size of the impact is significantly greater in terms of the number of lives, damage to infrastructure, and services and economy affected. This was clearly demonstrated in Mumbai’s experience of the 2005 floods, which brought the entire city’s commercial, trading and industrial activities to a standstill for days, causing a direct loss of at least US$100 million. Flight and rail services had to be stopped entirely and the local stock exchanges could operate only partially.

Against the backdrop of such a challenge, the urban risk reduction and disaster response strategies are poorly understood even today. In spite of the huge social and economic costs that disasters pose to cities, the emergency response capacities remain largely untested. Addressing this situation, EMExes help to promote awareness of urban disaster risks and to examine, test, evaluate and assess a city’s emergency disaster response capabilities.

Through the EMExes, the strengths and weaknesses of the systems can be identified and improved for managing disasters and emergencies better. In this way, EMExes brings together various actors involved in emergency management and facilitates networking, co-ordination, co-operation, a comprehensive overview of the city’s disaster management frameworks and obtains insights into how their role fits with others.

Assam, a state of India, situated in the northeastern region of the country, is located in seismic Zone V, and is prone to earthquakes of high magnitude. The State has a history of two great earthquakes of magnitude 8.7 (in the year 1897) and magnitude 8.5 (in the year 1950). As many as 20 destructive earthquakes of magnitudes 6 to 7 have rocked this region during the past century. The State is also vulnerable, in varying degrees, to a large number of natural hazards like floods, landslides and cyclones as well as man-made disasters. With the objective of addressing these enormous disaster risks in the state of Assam, the need was felt to conduct an EMExes to prepare emergency responders to provide efficient disaster responses in cities.

Location

·       Guwahati City, Assam, India

·       Jorhat City, Assam, India

·       Silchar City, Assam, India

·       Dibrugarh City, Assam, India

·       Nagaon City, Assam, India

How Was the Problem Addressed?

Emergency Management Exercise (EMEx) is a capacity building weeklong exercise designed to test the response mechanism that is in place in a disaster-prone city/town. The exercise provides an environment for participants to develop new skills for emergency management and to work together to develop a multi-disciplinary, coordinated response to local disasters and emergencies. It becomes an important tool for evaluating and assessing the capabilities of emergency responders, to test current plans and identify gaps in existing capacity and systems.

The entire programme involves Training of Trainers (ToT) in different tracks, Table-Top Exercise, Field Drill and Hot Wash conducted in different venues. The programme has the participation of various disaster management professionals in the city, namely regional emergency responders, educational institutions, hospitals, health professionals, humanitarian agencies, state agencies, members of the community, non-government organizations (NGOs), civil society organizations (CSOs) and professionals working in related fields to assess the disaster preparedness and resilience of cities and towns .

Assam State Disaster Management Authority (ASDMA) conducted the first Emergency Management Exercise (GEMEx 2012) in Guwahati with the help of national and international agencies. Over 800 stakeholders participated in the exercise and some very important lessons were drawn. The same has been carried out in other major cities and towns such as Jorhat, Silchar, Dibrugarh and Nagaon in 2013 and 2014.

The practicing and testing of the elements of any emergency plan is integral to the government’s efforts to ensure that every organization is fully prepared for all types of emergencies. Since false confidence may be placed in the reliability of a written plan, it becomes essential that all planning involves exercises to prove its feasibility. Emergency Management Exercise (EMEx) was conceived as a tool to test the response mechanism that exists in a disaster-prone city/town and to assess such a city or town’s disaster preparedness and resilience.

EMEx was originally designed by a team from the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative together with experts from Cornell Columbia Hospital and other institutions in the United States, and tested around the world including India, particularly in Mumbai and Chennai. Since then, the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) of the Government of India adopted EMEx as a systematic approach to capacity building in urban areas in relation to emergency preparedness and periodic testing of its response capabilities.

EMEx, as a testing tool, involves trainings, workshops and mock scenarios where various individuals (professionals and otherwise) and institutions, including emergency responders, educational institutions, hospitals, health professionals, humanitarian agencies, state agencies, members of the community and NGOs come together and participate in activities aimed at achieving a more disaster resilient city. The exercise is designed to harness the strengths and capabilities of the different departments/institutions/organizations that are responsible for carrying out emergency responses in an event of a disaster.

EMEx in the city of Guwahati was the first ever mega-exercise to be conducted in northeast India and the third in the country, after Mumbai and Chennai. The exercise was planned and successfully carried out by a collaboration of the District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA), Kamrup Metro and the NDMA with the support of the United Nations Childrens’ Fund (UNICEF) and All India Disaster Mitigation Institute (AIDMI).

EMEx has now been taken to the other major towns in the state of Assam. A walk-through method involving compound exercises for multiple stakeholders has been used. It includes discussion-based exercises, training sessions, tabletop exercises, a full-scale simulation of a mass casualty event followed by hot wash (debriefing) and preparation of an after-action report.

Trainings and Table Top Exercise

Generally, participants should have an awareness of their roles and be reasonably comfortable with them, before they are subject to the stresses of an exercise. The exercise aimed to test the procedures and not the people. If the staff is under-prepared, they may blame the plan, when they should actually be blaming their own lack of preparation and training. Therefore, an important aim is to make people feel more comfortable in their roles and build morale. Consequently, for each of the EMExes, a series of trainings for participants in different functional areas by relevant experts were conducted on the roles of stakeholders for a number of tracks ranging from 11-15.

These trainings were followed with a Table Top Exercise in which the participants were exposed to an already developed scenario of different levels of magnitude followed by step-by-step injects. The scenario stimulated the responders to communicate and be coordinated. They were also invited to test how the plan worked as a scenario unfolded, which proved particularly useful for validation purposes and for exploring the drawbacks in the procedures that followed. 

The Drill

After completion of the Table Top Exercise, a full-scale drill (live exercise) was carried out with actual deployment of personnel and equipment. These multiagency, multi-jurisdictional, multi-organizational activities reflected many facets of preparedness. The full-scale drill focused on implementing and analyzing the plans, policies, procedures, and co-operative agreements across multiple functional areas that require critical thinking, rapid problem solving, and effective responses by trained personnel in real time.

Live exercises are a live rehearsal for implementing a plan. Such exercises are particularly useful for testing logistics, communications and physical capabilities. They make excellent training events from the point of view of experiential learning, helping participants develop confidence in their skills and providing experience of what it would be like to use the plan’s procedures in a real event.

Hot Wash

In all the EMExes, immediately after the drill, a debriefing was conducted based on the information gathered during the testing of an emergency operations plan. This was done to highlight the critical aspects of capabilities captured and recorded during the drill as well as to place on record the data captured by independent observers during the exercise. This information was then compared to plans, policies and procedures to identify strengths and areas for improvement.

After Action Report

On completion of each EMEx, an After Action Report (AAR) was prepared by AIDMI, which is a consolidation of information gathered during the testing and evaluation of the emergency operations plan through the drill. The report provides feedback from the participants of the exercise, governing agencies and other stakeholders about their preparedness and overall capabilities.

Information gathered from this process helps in the identification of key areas that require focus and at the same time, serves as a guiding factor for any future improvement.

Findings/ Lessons Learnt

The EMExes have helped the Government to realize the importance of preparedness for effective response and the need for periodic drills to test the efficacy of plans. Some of the lessons learnt from the EMExes are:

1.     Emergency service providers to be trained regularly for disaster response;

2.     Mock drills at hospitals need to be carried out regularly;

3.     Better co-ordination needed amongst different hospitals for sharing of resources;

4.     Hospital disaster management planning, activation and awareness needs attention;

5.     Need for institutional strengthening at local level (municipality) for disaster management;

6.     Clarity on roles and responsibilities for all agencies concerned with emergency response;

7.     Standard operating procedures for key line departments to be revised as per gaps identified;

8.     Emergency operation centres to be activated with dedicated staff;

9.     Mapping of resources for effective decision making;

10.   Need for fail-safe communication system;

11.   System for co-coordinating and disseminating information to the media and public to be worked out;

12.   Emergency service delivery to be calibrated through proper planning and regular drills;

13.   Improvement in inter-agency co-ordination and response required;

14.   Mass awareness on disaster management issues required;

15.   Refresher trainings to be conducted for all stakeholders;

16.   Rehearsal procedures for emergency response as per principles of incident response system.

Challenge

It is felt that there is a need to: institutionalize regular drills and rehearsals which are still largely carried out in a sporadic and ad-hoc manner and; improve intra government co-ordination and information sharing between the many concerned individuals and departments.

Results

EMEx, which has been designed to explore and strengthen the emergency response systems and to assess the cities’ disaster preparedness and resilience as well as to develop a multidisciplinary, inter-stakeholder, coordinated response to emergencies, has achieved following:

a)      Mass sensitization and public awareness of emergency management and response has been done;

b)     Capacity enhancement of different stakeholders in emergency management and response has been done;

c)      Inter-agency communication, co-ordination and inter-operability has been tested and reviewed;

d)     Coordinated emergency management in cities and towns has been rehearsed;

e)      Areas of reinforcement and improvement with respect to emergency support functions have been identified;

f)      Gaps in the strengths and capabilities of emergency response have been identified;

g)      City specific roadmaps for emergency management services have been prepared.  

Measuring Success

The conduct of these EMExes helps decision makers to evaluate and assess the capabilities of the emergency responders and to identify the gaps in existing capacity and systems. The trainings and the drills conducted in the EMExes have brought together major responders and tested real-time inter-agency communication and co-ordination at all levels in these organizations, especially the incident command structure and its various agencies, and amongst the private sector and citizen groups.

The drill motivated stakeholders to take informed decisions in a planned manner which signifies the mainstreaming of risk reduction measures into the different functional areas of different agencies. The EMExes have, thus, helped to test the preparedness level of the state and its subsidiary administrative system in managing an emergency situation.

The EMExes have gone a long way towards helping the government realize the need for continuous enhancement of capacity of the different stakeholders involved in emergency Response. The government has developed a Perspective Plan for Capacity Building; it is also taking steps to bridge the gaps identified in the ‘After Action Report’ of the exercises to enhance the resilience and preparedness of the state of Assam.

Steps have also been initiated to develop standard operating procedures for key line departments, especially for all the emergency support functionaries.

The government of Assam has taken steps to set up fully functional emergency operation centres (EOC) at state and district level as well as develop a standard EOC guide for standardizing EOC operations.

A comprehensive media plan has also been designed which in addition to providing for information dissemination of safety measures, reaches out to the people through activities and initiatives.

Relevance to HFA

All EMExes carried out by the ASDMA are in line with the HFA in and seek to strengthen and fulfill the dream of a resilient state of Assam, save lives and environmental assets during a disasters. EMExes is aligned with HFA Priority 5 and seeks to substantially reduce any adverse impact or loss by preparing and equipping the authorities, individuals and communities with the knowledge and capacity to act proficiently in case of a disaster.

It contributes to Essential 1 of the Making Cities Resilient Campaign: “Put in place an organization and coordination to understand and reduce disaster risk, based on participation of citizen groups and civil society. Build local alliances. Ensure that all departments understand their role in disaster risk reduction and preparedness”.

The initiative responds to HFA 2 Priority 4: Enhancing preparedness for effective response, and building back better in recovery and reconstruction as described in the Zero draft. Since very little amounts of resources are made available for such exercises; successful initiatives needs to be highlighted for adequate attention in shaping the HFA 2 as well as for proper execution at local levels by responsible government authorities.

Potential for Replication

The initiative is replicable. Following Guwahati Management Exercise (GEMEx), major cities of Assam, namely Jorhat, Silchar, Dibrugarh and Nagaon have also conducted EMExes in their respective cities and towns and thereby, made improvements in the functions of their EOCs and IRS.

Contribution

Assam State Disaster Management Authority, Government of Assam

E-mail: asdmaghy@gmail.com

The unique roles of faith based organizations in disaster risk reduction

Faith based organizations (FBOs) have unique roles in disaster risk reduction (DRR). Unfortunately, they have not been sufficiently reflected in DRR policies in Japan.  After the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, direct talks between local governments and FBOs are frequently being conducted across Japan. FBOs’ roles are gradually being recognised through such dialogues.

 

Case study

The unique roles of faith based organizations in disaster risk reduction.

HFA Priority

Priority Action 4: Reduce the underlying risk factors

Priority Action 5: Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels.

Context

We made it our original principle to prepare for disasters and provide our facilities in case of emergencies. Through daily activities rooted in local communities, local organizations of Soka Gakkai International (SGI) and members have been aware of vulnerable neighbors and have supported them. The public sector, however, did not recognize the benefits and the unique role of FBOs were not shared with society at large.

Location

Japan

How was the problem addressed?

We have promoted coordination with the public sectors in addition to our own efforts.

Our staff and local members jointly lead the initiative. In the case of the Great East Japan earthquake, daily efforts by individual members enabled smooth and effective relief activities. Our facilities accommodated thousands of evacuees in the stricken area.

Local governments, meanwhile, prioritized publicly designated shelters for providing relief materials, while some of our facilities were neglected regardless of existence of numerous evacuees. We renewed our understanding of the importance of advanced collaboration and coordination with local governments. After the earthquake, we are proactively promoting discussion with local governments on such issues.

In Japan the public sector sometimes hesitates to have direct contact with FBOs due to the separation of church and state. One step we are taking to fill this gap is to be open-minded at our end. Another is to join a platform that multiple FBOs attend and maintain a neutral position in talks with local governments.

Results

When the big earthquake hit eastern Japan our facilities functioned as shelters, and several members, who were rooted in local communities as ordinary citizens, devoted themselves to helping vulnerable neighbours during the emergency.

Through our talks with the public sector after the earthquake, both sides now recognize the unique roles of each other and we have clarified how to cooperate for DRR.

As a result, some official agreements have been established with local governments in respective areas, which we believe will work in emergencies in the future. In particular, FBOs and their members try to take care of individuals both in emergency and restoration phases. If information acquired through such efforts is appropriately provided to the public sectors, it will be beneficial.

Tohoku region is currently at the restoration stage. We are promoting activities to support mental recovery. This issue is not yet sufficiently covered in the DRR framework. We would like to propose this be incorporated in a future framework and are making the necessary preparations in cooperation with other sectors including local governments.

Measuring success

What were the key elements of success?

The dedication of members and their knowledge of local communities acquired through daily activities. I

Direct talks between public sectors and FBOs are a good opportunity for public sectors to expand DRR networks, and for FBOs to identify their own roles in DRR.

Was the success/impact measured?

Is so, what indicators were used to measure?

The number of DRR-related agreements between local government and our local facilities has exceeded 100 in Japan. It will increase more in the near future. In the case of the 2011 earthquake the number of evacuees our facilities accommodated was around 5,000. The agreements will help increase that number if a similar disaster hits.

Relevance to HFA

How have the results contributed to HFA progress in the country?

The results mentioned above proved the importance of cooperation and coordination among various sectors, which is stated in the HFA.

Did HFA OR Making Cities Resilient Campaign play a role in enabling this initiative?

If yes, how / If no, what needs to be done in HFA2 to enable such initiatives?

Before the 2011 earthquake, the HFA was not well known by ordinary people. The HFA2 should be shared among various sectors that have roles in DRR.

Potential for replication

Can this initiative be replicated? Or has it already been replicated? If so, where.

The devotion and knowledge derives from our daily religious activity. It might be difficult to replicate this process in different situations. Academic research already shows that local governments across Japan are proactive in discussions with FBOs to enhance resilience. Such dialogues can be replicated.

Contribution by

Nobuyuki Asai, Programme Coordinator of Soka Gakkai International (SGI)

n-asai@soka.jp

Achieving Lari-Levels of Resilience for Self-Reliant Communities

Community resilience through women-centered approaches for early warning systems, relevant knowledge, information and training, integrated approaches targeting the Millennium Development Goals, zero-carbon DRR- compliant self built structures, alternative livelihoods etc.

Case Study

Achieving Lari-Levels of Resilience for Self-Reliant Communities

HFA Priority

HFA Priority 2: Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning.

HFA Priority 3: Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels.

HFA Priority 5: Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels.

Context

Pakistan is among the most hazard prone countries. Sindh has suffered flooding on an annual basis since 2010. Affected populations suffer from core poverty, ill health and illiteracy, and are highly vulnerable due to repeated disasters. Lack of transparency and poor governance has left rural communities helpless needing strength to deal with hazards themselves.

Location

Sindh Province, Pakistan.

How was the problem addressed?

Rural women have by and large been ignored in the past.   However, under the strategy developed by the Heritage Foundation of Pakistan (HF) women have been trained to spearhead community disaster risk management programmes using a holistic model in order to become self-reliant.

Heritage Foundation of Pakistan works closely with local communities, especially women, to develop and promote integrated approaches to deal with disasters. It provides training to implementing partners, communities and artisans.

Major Partners

IOM (International Organization for Migration) scales up construction of safe, zero carbon footprint shelters. It also helps to provide training in DRR-driven green skills.

An award from the Islamic Development Bank Laureate in 2013 has enabled start up funding for alternative livelihoods for women.

An Emirates Award has enabled implementation of integrated approaches – video link:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FHdD-GQLwWc);

A Transparency International Award in 2013 has helped implement the pilot for turning dysfunctional government schools into functional entities, which will enable all children to be in school.

The main challenges in rural areas are core poverty and alarming deficits in social infrastructure. High levels of poverty along with high illiteracy levels, high rate of maternal and child mortality, open defecation, lack of hygiene, and a consequent apathetic state.

Most international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) have spawned a culture of dependency by giving largesse and donations without teaching communities “to fish” themselves. This approach is traced to the post-Pakistan Earthquake 2005 development by the Government and donor agencies. It relied largely on the construction of industrialized systems and engineered structures using highly energy consumptive materials that have been detrimental to post-disaster development, which seeks to minimize carbon emissions. It has resulted in loss of pride and self esteem, dependency on donor funding and loss of initiative among affected communities.

In the work by HF, this ‘beggar bowl’ syndrome is being countered with strategies that foster pride and self-reliance. Women centered community based disaster risk management is the plank which is promoted to make communities understand the issues of core poverty and other deficits with which they are confronted. The trainings promote the development of DRR-driven zero carbon footprints, low-cost/no-cost green products which are designed to provide resilience and the ability to withstand disasters, that can be achieved by families themselves, without relying on external funding.

Lessons

The lessons of HF’s work are that if disaster preparedness strategies are women-centred, great strides can be made in developing integrated approaches to enable communities to rise above dependency and become self-reliant.

What could have been done differently and why?

The strategies so far adopted by UN/INGOs require careful analysis.

a.     Are shelter programmes contributing to higher levels of carbon emissions (due to promotion of burnt brick, concrete block or steel)?

b.     Do aid and humanitarian agencies analyze the environmental and social impact on communities due to introduction of alien forms and methodologies?

c.      Due to adoption of engineered structures, does the aid project, which usually costs hundreds of millions of dollars, regenerate local economy or help local enterprise?

d.     Are integrated solutions being followed? By each agency just targeting one sector, can community resilience be developed to withstand disasters?

e.     Is there any focus on women while developing disaster preparedness strategies?

f.      Are there attempts to develop local women role models in order to provide confidence and pride to local communities?

g.     How much attention is given to the intangible factors e.g. pride, importance of local traditions, encouragement of local artistic expression etc.?

Results

The HF holistic approach has resulted in the following: 

a.     Build Back Safer with Vernacular Methodologies: Use of non-engineered structures based on local resources and sustainable materials by improving the households’ technical capability to build/produce DRR-compliant shelters and other green products.

b.     Training in Green Skills: Production of DRR-compliant products e.g. eco-toilets, fuel efficient smokeless stoves; compost making from animal and human waste; herbal soap; rainwater harvesting; green roofs (growing vegetables on roofs); wetlands from waste dumps; tree plantation and vegetation; raised bed farming, platforms for storage of food; safe drinking water; livestock and livestock fodder; methods for treating water before use along with other hygiene, health and literacy objectives. 

c.      Barefoot Village Entrepreneurs: Trained by HF, these are mostly women in partnership with their male partners. They market and promote DRR-compliant products within their own village as well as in neighbouring villages.

d.     Women’s DRR Committees: These committees have been provided training in well-equipped DRR centres, where they hold periodic assemblies to provide information on various aspects of early warning, mobilization of community and school volunteers, and preparation prior to disasters. 

e.     Maa (Mothers’) Committees

These committees are responsible for ensuring that government schools are functioning by ensuring that all school going children are in school. They have been provided with cell phones so they can report absent teachers to Transparency International or HF.

f.      Women’s Assemblies and Festivals

These are held to encourage women’s participation in disaster risk management as well as to honour local role models.

(Video link for Maa Jo Melo – Mother’s Festival: https://vimeo.com/113195703)

Measuring success

a.     40,000 zero carbon footprint sustainable shelters built with earth, lime and bamboos (2011 to 2014), many of which have withstood floods in 2011, 2012 and 2013.

b.     Over 600 NGO personnel, professional architects, engineers and artisans provided training in the construction of sustainable safe shelters.

c.      1,700 village communities provided training in construction of sustainable safe shelters.

d.     10 DRR centres completed in as many villages with a population of 15,000.

e.     Green skill trainings provided to over 500 women and 50 men.

f.      Over 450 DRR compliant eco toilets with arrangements for roof gardens built by BVEs to prevent open defecation.

g.     Over 550 DRR-compliant fuel-efficient stoves built by BVEs.

Was the success/impact measured

Review carried out by IOM for shelter and ILO for green skills training.

Is so, what indicators were used to measure?

The evaluation report for one-room shelters commissioned by IOM from Shelter Cluster, Geneva, is due in mid-December 2014. 

Relevance to HFA

How have the results contributed to HFA progress in the country?

The HF programme has provided an understanding about the necessity of employing improved vernacular non-engineered structures both for flood- and seismic-resistant structures, thus providing safe self built shelters at a very low cost. Since 2011 funding  from the Department for International Development (DFID) emphasizes the need for use of lime. Also, a more integrated model is now being pursued by DFID-IOM e.g. by integrating HF’s fuel-efficient stoves. In some cases toilets are being constructed as part of shelter programmes. 

Did HFA OR Making Cities Resilient Campaign play a role in enabling this initiative?

HF strategies have been drawn from HFA and emphasize the need for DRR compliance at all aspects of development.

If yes, how / If no, what needs to be done in HFA2 to enable such initiatives?

Almost everybody is now working according to the guidelines provided by HFA. There is still need, however, to strengthen participative approaches, sustainability of materials, lower carbon emissions, improve the technical competence of communities so that safety can be built in all self-built structures, develop self respect and pride to encourage self help actions, and lower the cost of all actions to increase the outreach for concepts such as those promoted by HF.

Potential for replication

Can this initiative be replicated or has it already been replicated? If so, where?

HF’s model has not been replicated in other countries. It needs to be taken forward since it is designed for marginalized communities, which is the case in least developed countries (LDCs).

Provide a brief explanation on: how, and if there is no potential for replication.

There is huge potential for replication as communities can themselves become empowered to undertake various DRR activities themselves. HF Pakistan has developed facilities for large-scale training. It has three major training centers: for seismic resistant structures in HF Base Camp, Mansehra, North Pakistan; for Flood-resistant structures in HF’s Eco-village, Moak Sharif, Lower Sindh and HF’s DRR Theme Park, Kot Diji, Upper Sindh.

A large number of trainings are being conducted where models of various products, built with sustainable materials are available. HF’s DRR centres in various villages allow training in disaster preparedness as well as in green skills, thus providing communities, particularly women, with necessary tools to avoid displacement.

Since the methodology has been recognized (HF’s model is now among the finalists for World Habitat Awards 2015), it is hoped that international humanitarian networks will become aware of alternative methods of implementation.

Contribution by

Provide contact information of the key person(s) for this example of practice including yours:

Heritage Foundation of Pakistan (HF)

Ar. Yasmeen Lari yasmeen.lari@gmail.com

Ar. Mariyam Nizam mnizam@heritagefoundationpak.org

International Organization for Migration (IOM)

Ms. Ammarah Mubarak AMUBARAK@iom.int

Mr. Hasballah hasballah@iom.int

International Labour Organization

Ms. Shama Maqbool smaqbool@ilo.org

Mr. Alaf Shaikh shaikh@ilo.org

Mainstreaming persons with disabilities into disaster risk reduction

India has about 26.8 million persons living with disabilities. Some 11.8 million of this population are women. The Saritsa Foundation has recognized the importance of empowering this most vulnerable category of people. It has been empowering them by raising social awareness, knowledge and education in rural and urban areas since June 2000.

Case Study

The importance of mainstreaming persons with disabilities, especially visually impaired women, girls and others into disaster risk reduction – replicable advocacy and practices by the Saritsa Foundation.

HFA Priority

Priority 5

Context

Persons living with disabilities, especially the visually impaired, are most vulnerable and face discrimination when it comes to disaster preparedness often finding little or no initiatives to include them in the process.

Location

Saritsa’s programmes are run in rural and urban areas in nine states of India.

How the problem was addressed?

Saritsa Foundation has been organizing capacity building workshops for persons living with disabilities since June 2000. About 10,050 persons living with disabilities have been given opportunities to develop skills to respond to disasters and protect themselves.

Director-General Dr. Colonel N. M. Verma and Executive Director Professor Smita Kadam lead Saritsa.

The Saritsa team organized workshops with innovative methodology to enable confidence in persons with disabilities, sensitize them to be confident about the disaster risks they face, and help them to map out plans to protect themselves with the help of their families, the community and local governance. They were provided opportunities to learn how to protect themselves with immediate responses and the innovative use of local resources.

The main challenge was with making visually impaired women, girls and men willing participants in the learning process where they could be confident to believe “we can do it, we will do it, and we will learn to protect ourselves”. The use of the “buddy system” along with touch and learn have proven to be very successful.

Saritsa’s interactions have shown that persons with disabilities are serious about learning to protect their lives in disasters through practical training, mock drills and innovative education to build their capacities.

Experience shows that visually impaired persons, particularly women and girls, concentrate more on learning and respond more attentively. Discrimination is most disheartening for them. Persons living with disabilities have to be active partners in the formation of disaster policies and plans about them.

Saritsa’s first supportive partnership was with the Abilis Foundation in Finland. In the 14-year period since the project’s inception 2000, however, no other national or international agencies took an active part in supporting the programme. Had national or local governments supported the Saritsa Foundation, many more persons with disabilities could have been empowered.

The Foundation prepared Braille and audio books for the visually impaired and pictorial books for other categories of persons with disabilities in many regional languages. Partnerships and financial support for such a programme would have made it more successful, leading to genuine inclusiveness and ethical accountability.

Specific attention should be paid to the following points:

·       The awareness, education and training are conducted with interactive participatory methodology.

·       Participants are encouraged to analyze risk and vulnerability under various scenarios in their homes, workplaces and communities.

·       They are encouraged to raise awareness among themselves and their families and to prepare to respond accordingly.

·       They are encouraged to make use of local resources, experience and expertise.

·       Participants are provided practical training with mock drills in disaster scenarios.

·       They are guided to develop a buddy system (Jodi system) to respond to disasters.

·       They practice how to cope with different emergencies through practical training and mock drills.

·       They produce multiple communication modes like, mobile phone, landlines, word of mouth warnings, warnings by local authorities on radio, TV and public announcements – they learn to adhere to these warnings.

·       They network with family members, societal forums and people in local governance.

·       They become representatives in the formulation of plans for evacuation, relief and rehabilitation.

·       They raise their awareness about sexual violence, health and hygiene.

·       They make provisions for Braille and audio books in regional languages. 

The secret of the Saritsa Foundation’s success lies in making persons with disabilities think with ingenuity and respond with developed skills. Participants are told that they have to be committed to learn. No one teaches these survival skills in schools, colleges or in other forums, the way ‘Saritsa does it.’ What makes a difference is that with this education participants learn the dynamics of self-protection and survival skills. The participants develop following traits: 

1.     Optimism – we can do it!

2.   Teamwork – we are together to protect our people and ourselves.

3.   Initiative – timely mind mapping of action plans with survival skills.

4.   Resourcefulness – Innovative use of local resources and seeking help from their family and community.

5.     Determination – we have effective skills to save lives.

6.    Confidence and strength – we are strong enough to take local action to protect ourselves.

7.     Preparedness education will bring out the best in persons with disabilities.

Results

About 10,050 persons with disabilities have been mainstreamed into the DRR process. A reasonable level of social awareness has been raised and the need to provide opportunities to persons with disabilities that empower them to protect their lives and be safer is now being recognized. Family members and the communities are learning to identify the need for such initiatives.

Most of these events are covered as training events at www.preventionweb.net -

See more on YouTube links:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2aR09bcHlJs&list=UUCbwbvVQmwVSvW7b_bSHPsA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0GxXEbxQRyk&list=UUCbwbvVQmwVSvW7b_bSHPsA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mp6h8DriI0E&list=UUCbwbvVQmwVSvW7b_bSHPsA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJ9J_CMDb1I&list=UUCbwbvVQmwVSvW7b_bSHPsA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7R_sKE3xXNY&list=UUCbwbvVQmwVSvW7b_bSHPsA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nebBDhrVJ24&list=UUCbwbvVQmwVSvW7b_bSHPsA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iD7OvpYVpiY&list=UUCbwbvVQmwVSvW7b_bSHPsA

Measuring Success

The key indicators of this empowerment are persons with disabilities identifying with developed skills to protect themselves with needed responses and the use of local resources. Such acts are visible during live scenarios when confident responses in abundance.

Responses to live disaster scenarios were genuinely quantifiable when a visually impaired person learns to protect his or her self in an earthquake by taking a position under kitchen platform or covering her or his head with a bag or a pillow while exiting a house or office.

Relevance to HFA

HFA Priority 5 defines inclusiveness of all community groups as empowerment for DRR. This initiative is a distinctive and sustainable initiative by the Saritsa Foundation that contributes to the ethos and ideals of HFA progress as well as the plans and policies of Indian Government.

Persons with disabilities in urban and rural areas have been included in DRR practices.

Persons living with disabilities in urban areas have to be mainstreamed to make them equal stakeholders and uphold the principle of DRR inclusiveness in a country like India, which has large urban population of disabled persons.

Potential for replication

The Saritsa Foundation has successfully sustained this innovative and transformative initiative with minimal financial resources, yet it is still internationally replicable. It is highly replicable and a future solution for the right to safety and life of persons with disability and an environment of inclusiveness with no discrimination.

The World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR) needs specific plans to support this inclusiveness in future DRR initiatives.

Contribution by

Dr. Colonel N. M. Verma, Director General

Tel. +91 22 2436 6370 / Mobile +91 93 2315 7377 / email – saritsa@vsnl.net or saritsafoundationindia.in@gmail.com / Website – www.saritsafoundation.org

YouTube – www.youtube.com/user/saritsafoundation

Professor Smita Kadam, Executive Director

Tel. +91 22 2436 6370 / Mobile +91 98 7000 8717

Integration of MISP into the disaster risk reduction and preparedness action plans of provincial/district disaster management authorities

The International Planned Parenthood Federation / SPRINT project is advocacy for disaster risk reduction (DRR) and inclusion of Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) and Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) into the national disaster risk reduction and management policies and programmes of government.

Case Study

Integration of [1] MISP into the disaster risk reduction and preparedness action plans of provincial/district disaster management authorities.

HFA Priority

Priority 1: Ensure that disaster risk reduction (DRR) is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation.

Priority 5: Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels.

Abstract

The [2] IPPF [3] SPRINT project is advocacy for disaster risk reduction (DRR) and inclusion of Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) and Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) into the national disaster risk reduction and management policies and programmes of government.

From 2013-2014, [4] Rahnuma Family Planning Association of Pakistan (FPAP) was successful in getting the provincial and district disaster management authorities of Gilgit Baltistan (GB), Punjab, Baluchistan, Sindh, FATA, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) and Azad Jammu Kashmir (AJK) to include the MISP in their standard operating procedures (SOPs) and risk reduction action Plans.

Context

Pakistan is a particularly disaster-prone South Asian country due to the number of natural disasters that have killed, injured and affected millions in addition to inflicting huge economic costs. Pakistan itself has 28 million people affected by conflict and disasters.

In 2009 more than three million people in Pakistan were forced to flee their homes in the country’s northwestern areas as a result of political insecurity while forced displacement still exists in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Azad Jammu Kashmir and FATA.

Calamities such as floods particularly hit Punjab and Sindh while hill torrents affect the hilly areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Baluchistan and Gilgit Baltistan. In 2005, the Azad Jammu Kashmir (AJK) earthquake and the 2010 floods badly affected Punjab and Sindh, two of the agriculturally richest and most populated provinces. These two catastrophes illuminated how disasters exacerbated gender discrimination, gender-based violence (GBV) or sexual violence (SV), maternal and child mortality.

Location

Gilgit Baltistan (GB), Punjab, Baluchistan, Sindh, FATA, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) and Azad Jammu Kashmir (AJK) – Pakistan.

How the problem was addressed?

The SPRINT Initiative in Pakistan, with support from its member associate Rahnuma- Family Planning Association of Pakistan, has been proactive since 2013 in advocating for SRH and MISP inclusion into the DRR and disaster risk management (DRM) plans at national and local levels.

The initiative is based on recognition of the vulnerabilities of women and young during emergencies, particularly in the remote parts of crisis affected Gilgit Baltistan, Punjab, Baluchistan, Sindh, FATA, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Azad Jammu Kashmir. These vulnerabilities include:

·       Inaccessibility;

·       Lack of SRH services for pregnant and lactating mother and adolescents;

·       Sexual and gender Based Violence;

·       Rapid HIV/ STI transmission,

Rahnuma FPAP through the SPRINT Initiative, successfully integrated MISP into the SOPs and DRR action plans of provincial and district disaster management authorities in these provinces.

Primarily the lead was taken by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), through its member associate Rahnuma FPAP, which has been constantly liaising and advocating for MISP and inclusion of SRH components and service delivery into the SOPs and action plans. Initially, approaching the local, district and provincial governments and making them understand the relevance of MISP and SRH during crises was difficult.

SRH is the least prioritized issue during disasters and is often neglected. However with orientation on MISP through workshops and sensitization meetings that explained the importance of having a contingency plan and SOPs for responding to the SRH needs of vulnerable groups like pregnant and lactating women, young girls and adolescents, the process has led to a positive outcome.

It was felt that advocating and liaising with governments could take time and sometimes delay the desired outcome and policy changes due to firm administrative procedures. SPRINT therefore realized that it was extremely important to train and sensitize government officials on MISP and SRH during crises from the initial stage or inception of the project. Capacity building of local administrators and government officials on importance of MISP at disaster risk reduction and preparedness phase is something for which SPRINT now strongly advocates.

Results

Due to constant advocacy with national and local governments, integration of MISP and SRH into the action plans and SOPs of national Disaster management authorities (NDMA) and provincial disaster management authorities (PDMA) has become possible.

A 2014 situational assessment on SRH by SPRINT Pakistan rveled that the government awareness of SRH and the importance of MISP at the preparedness phase is extremely high, particularly in FATA and Punjab provinces. Constant advocacy in Pakistan has also led to the government institutions like the National Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Network (NHEPRN), the Health Service Academy (HSA), and the Pakistan Nursing Council taking an active role in the Reproductive Health Working Group managed by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and SPRINT Pakistan. There have been more than five MISP trainings in the country though the SPRINT project in 2014 which included various technical partners including government and other civil society organizations.  

Measuring success

SPRINT conducted a rapid assessment of SRH and MISP implementation in Pakistan, and it could be seen that the awareness among the district and local government especially in FATA and Punjab was very high with governments acknowledging the need for capacity building on MISP and RH components usage during emergencies.

SPRINT and UNFPA have also trained more than 20 government officials from NDMA, PDMA, NHEPRN etc., while more than 154 persons from international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) and Civil society organizations have now been trained on MISP and SRH during emergencies as a process of emergency preparedness and disaster risk reduction.

Relevance to HFA

DRR is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for Implementation along with the building and strengthening of capacities on MISP. This ensures maximum collaboration between partners on emergency preparedness (HFA Priorities: 1 and 5)

The most common link between HFA or the Making Cities Resilient campaign and this SPRINT’s initiative is ensuring the participation of local and national governments along with various stakeholders in integrating SRH into DRR plans and policies. The training of various partners, especially national and local level government officials, to strengthen their understanding of MISP is core in terms of ensuring emergency preparedness.

Potential for replication

Advocacy for the inclusion of SRH and MISP during disasters into the already existing DRR Plans at national and district levels have now been replicated and in progress through the SPRINT initiative in Bangladesh as well.   The starting point is through integration of SRH and MISP into the curriculum of doctors and nurses in colleges and universities. The efforts aim to build capacities and orient future service providers on MISP implementation. The capacity building of government officials, local partners and front line service providers through MISP trainings has been core to SPRINT DRR and preparedness efforts.

Contribution by

Nimisha Goswami , South Asia Regional Manager, The SPRINT Initiative

(Sexual Reproductive Health Programme in Crisis and Post-Crisis Situations)

International Planned Parenthood Federation – South Asia Regional Office

IPPF House, C-139, Defence Colony New Delhi – 110024, India

e-M: ngoswami@ippfsar.org T: +91-11-2435 9221/2/3/4/5/6 (230) F: +91-11-2435 9220 W: www.ippfsar.org

To view Photos of Sprint South Asia (Pakistan)

https://www.dropbox.com/sh/je32gd8azp6zkic/AAD0E3z5e_b3BAAA7rZmcX_Fa?n=332396174#/

SPRINT Publication:

http://www.ippf.org/sites/default/files/sprinting_towards_change.pdf

 

Footnotes

[1] The Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) for Reproductive Health is a priority set of life‐saving

activities to be implemented at the onset of every humanitarian crisis. The  MISP  is  an international standard as  outlined in the  Sphere Humanitarian Charter  and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response.

 

[2] The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) is a global service provider and a leading advocate of sexual and reproductive health and rights for all. It is a worldwide movement of national organizations working with and for communities and individuals.

 

[3] The SPRINT Initiative is a Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) Programme in Crisis and Post-Crisis Situations. It is an Australian Government funded initiative, managed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation.

 

[4]Since 1953, the Family Planning Association of Pakistan (FPAP) (member association of IPPF) has helped women, men and young people access critical sexual and reproductive healthcare (SRH) services, including family planning. They were instrumental in establishing a separate Ministry of Population Welfare, as well as for introducing the first ever policy on population control in South Asia. FPAP is now known as Rahnuma (one who shows the path and provides direction) to reflect its holistic approach towards development in Pakistan.